Mar 14, 2022

Tips for Students on How to Write an Anthropology Essay

anthropology essays

While anthropology studies are exciting and thought-provoking, they often leave little time for tedious academic assignments such as anthropology essays. This is where problems emerge, as the pressure of deadlines and the lack of anthropological writing skills may cause much trouble.

Writing an anthropology essay implies exploring complex or controversial class material. It may take the form of synthesis essays where students synthesize information learned in class to facilitate memorization and understanding. In reflective essays, students ponder on the given anthropology essay topics from a more personal perspective.

Writing an anthropology essay in a way that is both insightful and understandable is a challenging task. Students should be able to use complex anthropological theories and concepts and weave them into a sound, coherent narrative. Using an anthropology essay example can be a boon for students struggling with this task. Essays written by scholars or other students can help discover fresh ideas and understand the main academic writing requirements. They can also be a good starting point for writing your original essay based on your own research and ideas.

Another way to get a perfect paper is to ask professional essay writing service for help. They know everything about anthropological essay writing, so you don’t have to worry about quality. Do not perceive writing services as a sign of academic weakness because they may help you learn from the experts and compose better papers in the future.

List of Common Assignments on Anthropology Courses

An anthropology essay is not the only writing assignment you may be asked to complete as you study this discipline in college or university. Let’s describe the most popular academic assignments in this area:

  • Personal reflection. This assignment asks students to tie class material to their own experiences. It has a less rigid structure and writing standards than other papers and generally requires no in-depth engagement with the literature. However, students are expected to engage in the material thoroughly and present engaging reflections on their beliefs and worldviews.
  • Research paper. No anthropology course can go without research papers. This type of academic paper requires students to examine course content using scholarly literature. Topics may vary, but the writing standards are the same for all research papers and include proper use of sources (citations and references are a must), academic language, and a well-thought structure.
  • Book review. Anthropological writing assignments typically have specific rules for book reviews. They critically examine the content and its credibility and relevance. They can also explore whether the author achieved the stated goals and evaluate the book’s usefulness for anthropology students. The best book reviews also find common themes and ideas in the course content and the reviewed book to demonstrate students’ in-depth understanding of the material.
  • Ethnographic analysis. This task is one of the most creative and challenging ones, as it requires engagement with empirical data. Students are asked to collect and analyze ethnographic data, which may include detailed descriptions of the places, people, and social phenomena.
  • Term paper. Whether you study physical anthropology, linguistic anthropology, or any other area within the broader anthropology field, you will likely encounter this academic assignment. It is somewhat similar to the research paper but is much longer and requires a more thorough examination of the selected topic using available scholarly research.

What is Ethnography

Anthropological writing often requires the use of a specific methodology. It is essential for underpinning all research decisions and making the study systematic and well-structured. Ethnography is one of the most widely used methodological approaches to anthropological essay writing. Students using ethnography examine specific topics and phenomena in their cultural setting. It means they immerse themselves in the participants’ environment to understand the cultures, behaviors, motivations, etc.

Ethnography values direct interaction with the studied phenomena and people. For example, cultural anthropologists observe and analyze how participants interact with each other and their environment by being present in this environment. In other words, they look at the culture from within, thus gaining a better understanding of its rules and phenomena.

Ethnography is thus a direct opposite of laboratory research and experiments where people are placed in artificial settings. It values naturalism, allowing researchers to remain spectators in the selected cultural setting. Ethnography also requires researchers to refrain from stereotypes, pre-existing judgments, and personal beliefs that may hinder understanding familiar cultural processes and phenomena. The degree by which a researcher can look at everything unbiasedly determines the quality and depth of ethnographic research.

Originally, anthropologists using ethnography lived in small societies to examine their culture more closely, but this level of commitment is certainly not required from contemporary students. Although traveling to a distant land and studying indigenous populations is a dream for many anthropologists, you can use ethnography to interpret mundane cultural phenomena.

For example, students can observe participants on campus, during significant events (e.g., concerts), at home, etc. Places like work, shopping malls, clubs, and even social media can perfectly fit ethnographic research. Essentially, all you need to do is keep an open mind and see familiar things from a new perspective.

How to Write an Anthropology Essay

Anthropology essay writing does not have to be dreary, confusing, and overwhelming. We created a short checklist for you to follow as you complete your assignment. It is universal, so you can use it with different anthropology essay topics. Indeed, it does not guarantee success because we don’t know what your professor expects to see.

Still, you can learn the main steps to make a paper more polished. Let’s get started.

  1. Conduct research. If your essay relies on secondary data, study the available literature on the selected topic and pick ideas you want to discuss in your text. In the case of primary research, examine your field notes, interviews, and notes to understand what information is worth discussing in the essay.
  2. Create an outline. An outline is a detailed plan of the paper that will help you structure your ideas coherently. If your thoughts are racing, and there are too many ideas in your head, the outline is indispensable! It should list the thesis statement, main arguments, and transitions to facilitate writing. Moreover, you can find a relevant anthropology essay example online to understand structure requirements.
  3. Start writing. If you have a high-quality outline, this step is a piece of cake. You simply need to expand on each section and make sure the paragraphs flow. Your writing should be consistent, logical, and supported with evidence. Texts riddled with an opaque writing style are difficult to understand, so opt for simpler language. Always cite ideas taken from other sources and include a reference page at the end of the paper.
  4. Editing and proofreading. Students often make a mistake when they perceive these steps as a formality. In reality, quality editing and proofreading are extremely important for creating an academic-level essay. Check whether every aspect of your paper aligns with the provided paper requirements and grading rubrics. You can also use automatic grammar checks to ensure you don’t miss anything.

Anthropology Essay Topics

Topics for anthropology essays may vary considerably because it is a large area consisting of archaeology, biological (physical) anthropology, cultural anthropology, and linguistic anthropology. If your professor did not provide you with a topic for your anthropological writing exercise, just choose the one from the examples below. Each of them may help you create an original, engaging essay.

  1. Achievements and challenges in protecting indigenous populations in Brazil: The case of three communities.
  2. Integration and support of ethnic minorities in China: Examining experiences of underprivileged rural communities.
  3. The anthropological dimension of environmental activism: The case of X community in India.
  4. The role of sacred natural places in protecting biodiversity in Australia.
  5. Honey hunters in Nepal: Examining experiences of Gurung tribespeople.
  6. Presenting “others” in anthropological research: Practices and challenges.
  7. Examining the effect of urbanization on small indigenous communities in Peru.
  8. Agricultural adaptation to climate change in the X community in Morocco.
  9. Experiencing intercultural pedagogy: Mastering yoga at the X temple.
  10. Examination of small island worldviews from the anthropological perspective.
  11. The effect of anonymity on communication patterns online.
  12. Examining the impact of COVID-19 on traditional cultural rituals and celebrations in X.
  13. Potential effects of globalization of small communities in X region.
  14. Finding the way to protect closed societies without harmful interference.
  15. Effects of the feminist movement on gender relationships in daily life: Courtesy as the lost art?
  16. Re-interpretation of colonialism in Netflix projects.
  17. Impact of entertainment content on older generations’ perceptions of gender and sex.
  18. Concept of childhood in poor communities of East Africa.
  19. The potential impact of climate change on underwater anthropology.
  20. Perceptions of age in Western society vs. Indigenous communities of X.

The given topics are more suitable for college and university-level anthropology papers rather than school essays. However, they can also be modified according to your academic level or interests.

Example #1

Name
Professor
Course
Date

Replies for discussion board

Antipas Marati

I agree with Anitpas Marati that education has a dose-response relationship with health. Education is one of the greatest health determinants which influence numerous other health determinants. Furthermore, the influence of education on health seams to expand with increase in education.

Marati’s review of the article Education and health captures that nature of the dose relationship that education share with health. She captures three main ways in which the dose response influence occurs. They are referred to as pathway and include education increases knowledge leading to change in behaviour. Second, great education attainment if also a prerequisite to better economic standing through better jobs and finally higher education attainment positively impacts on ones social believe thus encouraging positive social believe that lead to positive health outcomes.

I also agree with Maratis argument the increase of knowledge through education is the most influential pathway than education uses to shape people’s health. More knowledge enables people to take charge of their lives. Finally, as Marati notes, failure of children of poorly educated parent to seek higher education is equivalent to the punishment God say’s faces children for the mistake of their parents. The church can help reduce literacy levels and thus help improve people’s health.

Cassandra Whitley

Whitley’s review of the article Education and health is also impressive. I agree with her perspective that the three pathways of education influence on health are interrelated. However, I disagree with Whitley’s argument that social and psychological factors the most influential pathway of educational influence on human health. I believe the knowledge and behaviours are that most influential pathways. Social and psychological factors are strongly influenced by knowledge and behaviour. Thus, knowledge and behaviour bear the strongest influence from higher education and in turn influence the other pathways.

I concur with her argument for the need for health education programs to take care of the high illiteracy level among the American adults. Education would bridge the social economic gap between classes. She further accurately notes the influence of family background on education achievement of children.  Family background clearly predicts a Childs future education achievement and health status. She avidly likens this to the biblical explanation that generation upon generation would suffer for the mistakes of their forefathers. Finally, I concur with her idea on how the church could help improve education and health status of the poor. Churches can support youths and adult education and thus break generational cycles of low education, poverty and poor health.

Example #2

Name:
Course:
College:
Tutor:
Date:

SUMMARY

“Slaughterhouse Blues: The Meat and Poultry Industry in North America” is a text written for the purposes of satisfying the quest of the society on the relationship of meat and poultry industries to the society. It is rather a case study on the effect of economic destabilization of the society to the meat and poetry industry, with special regard to the North American population (Donald and Michael 23). This study was done by Donald Stull and Michael Broadway who are both academic enigmas. Donald is a well kwon anthropologist. He is a professor and a chairperson of the Anthropology department at the University of Kansas. On the other hand, Michael Broadway is an associate professor of Geography at SUNY. This study was done in the 2003 following the mighty inflow of the North American population into the meat and poultry industries in search for jobs, yet exhibiting low interest on the products from the meat and poultry industries (Donald and Michael 28).

The sociologist cum anthropologist joined forces to show the contrasting relationship between the two groups as special entities in the society. The first group is that of the population and the second group is that of the industries. The industries require the population for labor and market, while the population requires the industries for employment (Donald and Michael 58). One would think that the population should readily assimilate into the industries’ demand for market, since the population is responsible for the product; however, according to this study, the population has a negative attitude towards the products (Donald and Michael 67). It sounds as if the demand for the beef and poultry products decline with the rise of employment opportunities in the producer industries.

The good news about the study is that, the proponents of the study are crusaders of peace and reconciliation for the two groups. They actually work towards realization of the need for the communities surrounding the industries to have a positive perception of the products from the industries (Donald and Michael 70). They resolve the conflict by maintaining that there is a need for the people in North American region to live in preparedness for and tame the outcomes of the meat and poultry industries that they count as cons to them (Donald and Michael, 76). Once it was said that disappointments can be easily turned into appointments if only positively taken. One needs only to accept the disappointment and choose to work on it for the advantage of the targeted victim. This is the dream of the authors of the case study, “Slaughterhouse Blues: The Meat and Poultry Industry in North America”.

It is interesting to note that, the title of the case study is highly captivating and clearly indicates that there are woes in or about the slaughter houses (Young 102). The word ‘blues’ speaks it all! They then proceed to disapprove every reason for the communities around the industrial location to have blues about the plants and their products (Young 129). This, the authors do by systematically showing the production processes involved before beef or poultry meal is ready for consumption (Young 140).They highlight the systematic involvement of the people’s historical, economical, socio-geographical, and cultural setting in the production of the last product, which, ironically, the very society declines to consume!

This study is essentially meant to change the view of North Americans on modern meat and poultry production means and make the Northants perceive the modernized meat and poultry production means as a solution for the better of the agricultural sector. For instance, the author dwells on the negative view by the communities on the confined animal feeding strategies by the industrial management (Ralph 21432).This, the authors use to show how helpful it becomes as it helps avoid extra costs involved in the free style feeding strategy, such as, close supervision of the animals, soil erosion as the animals plunder the land, and the ease of acquiring manure from the animals’ waste. With the free style feeding strategies, the farmer may not be able to collect the waste, while the confined feeding strategy makes the waste available at one spot; therefore, no much labor is involved in collection of the animal waste for manure preparation (Ralph 24580).With the confined operation of the industrial strategies of feeding the animals makes it easy to monitor and control disease among the animals.

According to the author of this study, the impacts of the meat and poultry industries on the communities dwelling within the regions where the plants are situated can be blamed on the communities, not the firms (Ralph 25673).This is viewed in the light of the social diversities in the communities. The authors maintain that the conflict is best solved if at all it is solved at individual level (Ralph 27688). This is true since the influx of different communities into the North American region has lead to creation of different patterns of cultural practices. As a result, these differences in culture have lead to conflict ideally. Therefore, for there to be harmony in the North American region, the people must speak in one voice, dropping their cultural differences away. They have to learn to dance the turn of technological change, so as to appreciate the presence of fast meat and poultry products from the firms in the region.

In conclusion, the study by Donald and Michael is a mental thriller on the modern food product operations and their impacts to the society. They actually choose on the meat and poultry industries at the North American region and the conflict there is among the population in the region against the plants and their products (Ralph 27563). The authors are fighting to defend the commercial advantage that comes with the installation of food processing industries within the residential areas. They are striving to inflict blindness on the eyes that see disadvantages on the thought of an agriculture-based industrial development in their residential region (Young A. 108). They passionately campaign on the advantages of the food processing industries. Overtly, the authors protest against diversity, culture, economy, and social-geography barriers against fast foods. The society has to come to terms with the fact that time and seasons have changed and it is high time that we all kissed the changes in the market and society instead of wishing them away (Donald and Michael 80). We should readily embrace fast foods, not ignoring the sophisticated agricultural operations either. This study is a great work since it has been used greatly by scholars, industrial managers in fast food industries, and agricultural experts to pave way into the food processing technology.

Works Cited

Donald, Stull, and Michael Broadway. Slaughterhouse Blues: The Meat and Poultry
Industry in North America. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/ Thomson, 2003.
Donald, Stull, and Michael Broadway. Rev. Slaughterhouse Blues: The Meat and Poultry
Industry in North America. By Ralph L. Impacts of Change and Diversity in the meat and Poultry Industry. 27688 (2008) 26578
Donald, Stull, and Michael Broadway. Rev. of Slaughterhouse Blues: The Meat and
Poultry Industry in North America.  By Young, John. Food/ Food Security book reviews 98 (2004): 174

Example #3

Name of Student
Subject
Course
Professor
Date

What Really Happened to Otzi?

The 5,000 year old iceman found in the Otztal Alps of Italy, named Otzi, was killed by cerebral trauma (Lorenzi). Earlier findings, however, revealed that he was killed by an arrow wound caused by an assailant. Re-examination of the results of forensic data as well as further investigation of his position when his remains were found revealed otherwise. The lesion on head or skull showed that he was attacked upfront with his assailant standing over him. He must have fainted due to blood lost from the arrow wound. His position when he died was also a subject of debate when he was found in 1991. He was found with his face down and his left arm holding his chest which led investigators to earlier conclude that the latter position was Otzi’s effort to stop the pain that that the arrow wound caused. Current findings suggest that Otzi’s assailant was standing over him, turned him over his stomach and pulled out the arrow from his shoulder; hence his face down position at death.

Works Cited

Lorenzi, Rosella. “Blow to head, not arrow, killed Otzi the iceman”. News in Science.  31 August 2007. http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/2007/2020609.htm

Example #4

Name
Tutor
Course
Date

Homind

  1. What has been the predominant argument for the delay in physical growth in hominin?

The dominant explanation or argument for delayed physical growth in humans is the need to grow large brains and to learn and acquire all the complex behavior patterns associated with human speaking or social interaction. In the course of developing such behavior patterns, the humans can not take care of themselves and thus the need to remain small and appear youthful.

  1. Why does the Turkana Boy fossil discovery cause some scientists to reconsider this explanation?

The discovery of the Turkana Boy caused some scientist to reconsider the explanation above since the features of his skeleton put him at 13 years of age though he was as tall as a 15-year-old. According to Holly Smith an anthropologist from Michigan University, he was too tall for his dental age considering that his teeth put him at 10 or 11 years old. This contradicts the above explanation.

  1. What unique information do fossilized children provide?

Fossilized children indicate that there are differences between skeletal and dental ages as found in the Turkana Boy. A ten year boy for instance had a dental age of 9 and a skeletal age of 6-years while his height indicated that he was 11.

  1. Why are their difficulties in assessing the age of a skeleton based on development markers?

It is difficult because several development markers are required at any one time to make reasonable age estimates. Markers have another problem in that they do not match up. The various age markers in modern humans for example do not match. There are always some disparities.

  1. What alternate arguments are offered by Susan Anton (New York University) and Steven Leigh (University of Illinois) concerning the interpretation of Turkana Boy?

Susan Anton argued that the Turkana Boy was about to reach the stage where he would develop modern human patterns of growth with extreme adolescent spurt. Steve Leigh on the other hand criticized the earlier explanation claiming that it does not offer an explanation to dramatic increase in growth rates. He cited that in many primates, growth spurts in specific body regions which are associated with reaching maturity.

  1. Do you feel that Turkana Boy offers new insights into our understanding of hominin development? Why or why not?

Yes. The Turkana Boy offers new ideas towards understanding of hominin development. The study of Turkana Boy has revealed that not all development markers. The study has also provided the basis for arguments which have resulted to new ideas like those brought forth by Susan Anton and Steven Leigh.

Work cited

Dicks, Lynn .Teenagers special: The original rebels. November 13, 2009
http://www.newscientist.com/channel/being-human/teenagers/mg18524891.100 1

Example #5

Wring Introduction, Conclusion and Bibliography for Main Body
by
Student I.D.
Course
Instructor
10 March 2010

The Balla Discovery

Introduction

The Balla Child was discovered by Jeno Eugene Hillbrand in 1909 in the Balla Cave in Northeastern Hungary and thought to have been intentionally buried due to its anatomical position and lack of gnawing by rodents and carnivores (Hillebrand 1911, p.519). Attempts to situate the remnants in history were made by Kadic (1934, p.72) and Hillebrand (1935, p.13) who attributed flint blades and foliate tools recovered in the soil strata to the “Magdalenian period”, and Vertes (1965, pp.208-209) who associated the remains with the Pilisszanto culture due to the nature of the lithic assemblages. However, a yellow stratigraphic band above the remains was identified as the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The micro-fauna and macro-fauna offered evidence of the Pleistocene period; the former by a comparison of biostratigraphic data collected by Kadic (1934) in the Puskaporos rockshelter, and the latter due to the absence of lemmings and reindeer (Mottl 1941, pp.19–20, 24–25).

Based on observations of the teeth and skeleton, the Balla child was about one year old when he died. Further, the cranial features appeared similar to those of European modern children, but the well preserved bone structure did not exhibit any specific upper Paleolithic or Holocene human origin. However, the morphology of the braincase resembled that of the Hungarian Neolithic population (Bartucz 1940, p.54) and the stage of development was identified as closely resembling that of immature specimens found in the Czech Republic at Predmosti (Matgieka 1934 & Matgieka 1938) and at Krems-Watchberg in Eastern Austria (Einwogerer et al. 2006).

Previous radio carbon dates from Balla were inconclusive. In 1965, Vertes dated the Szeletian lithic assemblage found in the cave at 22,300 ± 180 BP, an anomaly because it resembled the dates obtained for the Gravettian site of Sagya (about 18 Ka BP) (Vogel & Waterbolk 1972, p.64). Further, Vogel & Waterbolk (1972) disputed the result on the basis that the charcoal was poorly preserved and the Groningen Laboratory had placed the Szeletian period between 43,000 ± 1100 BP and 32,620 ± 400 BP. Consequently, direct dating of the skeleton seemed appropriate.

Direct dating was performed on a ground bone sample using a CHN elemental analyzer in order to determine collagen preservation from carbon and nitrogen in the bone (Bocherens et al. 2005). The nitrogen and carbon content were 4.5 percent and 14.4 percent respectively, and the isotropic data corresponded to that of contemporaneous humans from the Iron Gates along the Danude River. Thus, direct dating of the Balla Skeleton corresponded to that of an early Neolithic time period of Central Europe (Hertelendi et al. 1995), about 6600 ± 50 BP.

Conclusion

The discovery of the Balla Child in 1909 brought controversial attempts to situate its origins. Kadic (1934, p.72) and Hillebrand (1935, p.13) placed it in the “Magdalenian” period due to the recovery of flint blades and foliate tools from the soil structure. The nature of the lithic assemblages was associated with the Pilisszanto culture (Vertes 1965, pp. 208-209). However, investigation of the micro-fauna and macro-fauna offered evidence of the Pleistocene period. Further, examination of the teeth, skeleton, and cranial features was associated with a modern European child who had died at the age of one, and the morphology of the braincase resembled that of the Hungarian Neolithic population.

Past radio carbon dating was inconclusive. Vertes’s estimate of the Szetelian lithic assemblage found in the cave (22,300 ± 180BP) was controversial because it resembled dates obtained for the Gravettian site of Sagya (Vogel & Waterbolk 1972, p.64). Further, the authors disputed this estimation because the Groningen Laboratory placed the Szetelian period between 43,000 ± 1100 BP and 32,620 ± 400 BP, in addition to the unreliability of the poorly preserved charcoal. Thus, direct dating was deemed appropriate. Analysis of a ground bone sample using a CHN analyzer revealed that the isotropic data corresponded to that of humans from the Iron Gates along the Danube River, an early Neolithic time period of Central Europe, about 6600 ± 50 BP (Hertelendi et al. 1995).

This article is important because it educates the reader on the various methods used to determine the age of archaeological remains. It highlights the role of scientific debate and technique in archeology. The earlier dating methods used by Kadic (1934, p.72) and Hillebrand (1935, p.13), which associated the Balla child with the “Magdalenian” period due to the recovery of flint blades and foliate tools from the soil structure, is an illustration of the relevance of direct dating and the need for more accurate methods that will situate remains commonly found all over the world.

The article also allows present civilization to relate to its past and uncover how past civilizations used to exist and look. According to Long (2009), radio carbon dating can be applied universally as long as there is organic matter present, and can go back as long as 50,000 years. However, it is not precise, and other techniques, such as dendrochronology, should be researched and developed so that events going back more than 50,000 years can be understood and chronicled. The Balla discovery was therefore significant, not only to the scientific community, but to the public because it educates on a subject that remains the sole preserve of science; carbon dating. The discovery also brought to the fore the similarity of anatomy between present and past civilization.

References

Bartucz, L, Dancza, J, Hollendonner, F, Kadić, O, Mottl, M, Pataki, V, Pálosi, E, Szabó, J & Vendl, A, Editors, Die Mussolini-Höhle (Subalyuk) bei Cserépfalu, Geologica Hungarica Series Palaeontologica 14, Editio Instituti Regii Hungarici Geologici, Budapest (1940), pp. 49–105.
Bocherens, H, Drucker, D, Billiou, D & Moussa, I 2005, ‘Une nouvelle approche pour évaluer l’état de conservation de l’os et du collagène pour les mesures isotopiques (datation au radiocarbone, isotopes stables du carbone et de l’azote)’, L’Anthropologie 109 (3) (2005), pp. 557–567.
Einwögerer, T, Friesinger, H, Händel, C, Neugebauer-Maresch, Simon, U & Teschler-Nicola, M 2006, ‘Upper Palaeolithic infant burials’, Nature 444 (2006), p.285.
Hertelendi, E, Kalicz, N, Raczky, P, Horváth, F, Veres, M, Svingor, É, Futó, I, & Bartosiewicz, L, Re-evaluation of the Neolithic in Eastern Hungary based on calibrated radiocarbon dates. In: Cook, G.T., Harkness, D.D., Miller, B.F., Scott, E.M. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 15th International Radiocarbon Conference. Radiocarbon 37, 239–245.
Hillebrand, E 1911, ‘Die diluvialen Knochenreste eines Kindes aus der Ballahöhle bei Répáshuta in Ungarn’, Földtani Közlöny 41 (1911), pp. 518–531.
Hillebrand, J 1935, ‘Magyarország őskőkora—Die Ältere Steinzeit Ungarns’, Archaeologia Hungarica 17, Magyar Történeti Múzeum, Budapest (1935).
Kadić, O 1934, ‘A jégkor embere Magyarországon—Der Mensch zur Eiszeit in Ungarn. Mitteilungen aus dem Jahrbuch der kgl’, Ungarischen Geologischen Anstalt 30 (1934), pp.1–147.
Long, K 2009, Why Is Radiocarbon Dating Important To Archaeology? viewed 11 March 2010,
http://www.parks.ca.gov/?page_id=24000
Matiegka, J 1934, Homo předmostensis, fosilní člověk z Předmostí na Morave 1, Česká akademie věd a umění, Praha (1934).
Matiegka, J 1938, Homo předmostensis, fosilní člověk z Předmostí na Morave 2, Česká akademie věd a umění, Praha (1938).
Mottl, M 1941, Az interglaciálisok és interstadiálisok a magyarországi emlősfauna tükrében. A Magyar kir. Földtani Intézet 1941. évi Jelentésének Függeléke, 5–42.
Vértes, L 1965, Az őskőkor és az átmeneti kőkor emlékei Magyarországon, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest (1965).
Vogel J.C. & Waterbolk, H.T. 1972, ‘Groningen radio-carbon dates X’, Radiocarbon 14 (1972), pp. 6–110.
Long, K 2009, Why Is Radiocarbon Dating Important To Archaeology? viewed 11 March 2010,
http://www.parks.ca.gov/?page_id=24000